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 Writing Guidelines Nature and Society in California Sources: In your research papers, you should use academic journal articles and books for the most part. If you are researching a topic that is more contemporary, I would expect some newspaper articles, perhaps a magazine article (Please not GQ or similar) and other data (e.g., a government report, statistics, etc.). Because your topics will vary, you have some flexibility. Use the number of sources you feel is appropriate and no less than 10 in the final paper. I recommend that you look for at least 20 to 25 good sources to start with. The reason is you want to find good sources not filler; spend time looking for good sources. And finally, DO NOT USE SOLELY REFERENCES FROM WIKIPEDIA, RANDOM INTERNET SITES, OR OTHER SIMILAR SORTS OF SOURCES. The requirement is for the vast majority of your sources to be peer-reviewed articles or books. You will likely receive a lower grade for not using peer reviewed sources. Proper Citations: There are basically two things to know about citations: first, how to cite a source in the text, and second, how to cite a source in the bibliography. Bibliography for the purposes of this class means a list of all sources used in your paper. IT DOES NOT MEAN AND SHOULD NOT BE A LIST OF “RESOURCES CONSULTED.” The rules for the bibliography in this class are the standard rules for the Annals of the Association of American Geographers (the leading journal for all geographers in the U.S.) Class Style Guide: Citing in the body of the text: In-text citations are really simple and thus widely used because they easily refer the reader back to the bibliography. The citation goes inside the parentheses at the end of the clause, quotation or sentence, or paragraph where the cited data is located. The basic sequence is: open parenthesis, author’s last name, comma, date of publication, close parenthesiS; for example: (Guthey et al., 2013). If you are citing from a specific page in the author’s text, the sequence is: open parenthesis, author’s last name, comma, date of publication, comma, page number, close parenthesis. If you are including the author’s name in the text, use their full name on first reference, and only their last name and date thereafter. For example, on first reference: Greig Guthey (2004) argues that the California wine industry is a form of industrial district. On subsequent references: Guthey (2004) suggests that land use politics is central to the emergence of a more sustainable wine industry. Example #1 Manuel Castells (1996, 65) claims the new economy is “informational because the productivity and competitiveness of units of agents… fundamentally depend upon their capacity to generate, process, and apply efficiently knowledge-based information.” [Note: use full names on first references, last names only on subsequent references; so a second reference would look like this: Castells (1996)…. Also the number 65 after the comma refers to the page number where a reader would look to find and confirm the information you are using. ] Example #2 An alternative view to the notion of “new times” is that capitalism as a system is in a constant process of geographical readjustment, which among critical geographers sometimes involves the declining rate of profit and a related “spatial fix” (Harvey, 1982). From this geographical perspective, new times are another round of restructuring, albeit on a larger scale. [Note that here we only use last names even if it is a first reference because Harvey is not used in the actual sentence; his name only appears as a reference to the idea of spatial fix, which is the general subject of his book.] The Bibliography: Single Author Books Castells, M. 1996. The Rise of the Network Society. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers. Harvey, D. 1982. The Limits to Capital. Oxford: Basil Blackwell Publishers. Multiple references by the same author or authors. Two or more references to works by the same author are listed chronologically, replacing the author’s name with three “Em dashes” after the first listed source. “Em dashes” are a special character that you can find in Microsoft Word on the Insert Menu. Click on Symbol and then Special characters, which brings up a list of characters. Em dash should be the first on the list. Now for examples. If one had two different articles by David Harvey, one would have the following in chronological order:

 
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