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Systematic Review of Trends in Self-Reported Spontaneous Abortions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abstract

There is little information known concerning the changing miscarriage rates in the United States for the past decades. The Information used in examining the trends came from the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). Having accounted for the availability of abortions and physical characteristics witnessed in pregnant women, there was an approximate of 1.0 per cent increase in reported miscarriages per year. The increasing miscarriage trend is more prevalent in the first seven weeks of pregnancy and disappears after 12 weeks of a mother’s pregnancy. Hispanic and African American women have fewer cases of miscarriage reported as compared to their counterparts, the whites. In the paper, I describe a Systematic Review in understanding the causes for the rising trends in miscarriage among women and the need for awareness in pregnancy to minimize on the cases.

Keywords: Abortion, Pregnancy Awareness, Miscarriage

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Introduction

From the early 1970s, technological improvements have been key in utilizing prenatal and maternal care. This includes psychological interventions, enhancement of behaviors regarded as being healthy, and constant risk assessment. The improvement of prenatal care and easy accessibility of information on risky behaviors could be the major factor behind the reduction of fetal loss. In aIDition, Home Pregnancy Tests provided the women with an opportunity of confirming the state of their pregnancy in earlier stages.The study categorizes miscarriages into three categories, early miscarriage, 7 weeks and below, miIDle miscarriage, between eight and 12 weeks and the late miscarriage of 12 weeks and above. My study provides information in detail concerning the progression over time of miscarriages rates.

Methods

A systematic literature review uses information captured from NSFGs Cycles IV to VI managed by The National Center for Health in Statistics from 10 January 2015 to 31 January 2015. Collection of data from the NFSG comes from women’s health, family life, contraception use and infertility (Burton et al. 1993). There was examination of publications identified to be having information regarding the miscarriage rates of women at different stages of their pregnancy. There was elimination of articles that did not discuss the topic. A further search involved the use of official sites with relevant information including Europe PubMed Central. There is also inclusion of surveys from interviews conducted and the mothers’ education regarding the subject.

 

 

Results

The data collected from the sampled population of women indicated that there was a miscarriage rate of 12 percent of all the pregnancies. Most of the miscarriages appeared to occur during the 10th week of mothers’ pregnancy. The data collected came from women who had a pregnancy within 19 years and entirely depended on their ability to remember the details of their pregnancy (Andersen AMN et al. 2000). However, there was no evidence to show that there was biasness from the participants when recalling. There was an increase in miscarriage rates with time. The sample included women between the ages of 13 to 25; an outlier likely caused the increase (Kiely&Kogan, 1994).

The articles from Europe PubMed Central showed the trends in miscarriage over the Hispanic and African women in comparison with the whites. The articles show that few or no miscarriages occur after the twelfth week and the highest occurrences occurred in the early stage of pregnancy prescribed as being seven weeks and below.

Discussion

It is surprising on the increasing miscarriage rates for the few past years in prenatal care. A number of factors come into play that could have led to the rising incidences. Some suggestions brought forward over the increase include; first, lack of Health Insurance could have led to reduced accessibility to prenatal care. However, the studies indicate an increased prenatal care in the early 1970s. Secondly, drug abuse and smoking could have been on the rise 1970-2000 (Anokute CC, 1986). However, the studies showed clearly a drop in smoking at the time of pregnancy.

In aIDition, there was a decrease in alcohol consumption among the pregnant women from 1989-2000.

It was not possible to access information involving the consumption of alcohol before 1989. Thirdly, several environmental factors also played a crucial role in the miscarriage rates. There was a decrease in occurrences of sexually Transmitted Diseases in 2000 as compared to 1970 with syphilis, chancroid and gonorrhea cases being low. Contrary, there has been a rise in chlamydia prevalence, with its first data collected back in 1984. There is evidence showing the relationship between pollutants in the environment and different pregnancy and birth outcomes.

The available evidence includes neurodevelopmental effects arising from mercury, and lead that could be causing birth defects (Centers for Disease Control 2009).

In the systematic review of the topic, the suggestions I front forward explain easier pregnancy tests as the cause of the rising incidences in miscarriage.th introduction of over the counter kits for home use introduced in 1977 enabled the women to carry out pregnancy tests on their own. As such, they were able to confirm whether they were pregnant or not. In the end, they could easily identify a miscarriage and report. This is something that was foreign before the introduction of the home kits to test pregnancies (Ebrahim et al. 1998).

Studies also show that, women were able to be aware of their pregnancy through the awareness created by educating them. In aIDition, with age, women get to gain more experience about pregnancy, therefore able to determine a pregnancy and a likelihood of a miscarriage. Studies show that educated women are at a position of taking care of their pregnancy however, miscarriage tends to increase the more a woman appears educated (Fiscella, 1995).

The hypothesis shows clearly the consistency between the pregnancy awareness and miscarriages. This serves as a serious factor that appears consistent with the results attained from NSFG for purposes of epidemiological studies (Dominguez-Rojas, 1994). For instance, the findings suggest taking of precautions when trying to interpret the linkage between age of an individual and miscarriage. On the same note, there is need to consider knowledge regarding reproductions of individuals in relation to their level of education or race in the analysis of results and performance of clinical tests.

Conclusion

            The introduction of home pregnancy test kits and pregnancy awareness served a fundamental role in the reduction of miscarriages. It is therefore clear that there has been continuous evolution of miscarriages since 1970, and this could be highly attributed to the accessibility and availability of information for the pregnant mothers. In the past, there were several unreported cases of miscarriages leading to the low rates witnessed. However, with the current availability of devices and kits to perform the same, information is rampant. Thereby denoting the rise of miscarriage cases, which does not necessarily mean that they were few in the past, it is only that there were no mechanisms put in place to repot them.

 

References

Abdullah HI, Burton G, Kirkland A, Johnson MR, Leonard T, Brooks A, StuID JWW. Age, pregnancy, and miscarriage: Uterine versus ovarian factors. Human Reproduction. 1993;8:1512–1517. [PubMed]

Andersen AMN, Wohlfahrt J, Christens P, Olsen J, Melbye M. Maternal age and fetal loss: Population based register linkage study. British Journal of Medicine. 2000;320:1708–1712. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Anokute CC. Epidemiology of spontaneous abortion: The effects of alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking. Journal of the National Medical Association. 1986;78:771–775. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Alcohol use among pregnant and nonpregnant women of childbearing age—United States, 1991–2005. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2009;58(19):529–532. [PubMed]

Dominguez-Rojas V, de Juanes-Pardo JR, Astasio-Arbiza P, Ortega-Molina P, Gordillo-Florencio E. Spontaneous abortion in a hospital population: Are tobacco and coffee intake risk factors? European Journal of Epidemiology. 1994;10:665–668. [PubMed]

Ebrahim SH, Luman ET, Floyd RL, Murphy CC, Bennett EM, Boyle CA. Alcohol consumption by pregnant women in the United States during 1988–1995. Obstetrics and Gynecology. 1998;92:187–192. [PubMed]

Fiscella K. Does prenatal care improve birth outcomes? A critical review. Obstetrics and Gynecology. 1995;85:468–479. [PubMed]

Kiely JL, Kogan MD. From data to action: CDC’s public health surveillance for women, infants and children. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics; 1994. Prenatal care.

 

 

 

 

 

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