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The assignment (1–3 pages)

  • Briefly describe each of the three roles in Bernard’s Discrimination Model (teacher/educator, consultant, and counselor).
  • Explain how and when good supervisors attend to vicarious trauma in these roles.
  • Explain how you, as a supervisee, should respond to a supervisor acting in each of those three roles.
  • Using Learning Resources or other current literature to support your responses.

Learning Resources


  • Course Text: Secondary Traumatic Stress: Self-Care Issues for Clinicians, Researchers, and Educators
    • Chapter 8, “Painful Pedagogy: Teaching About Trauma in Academic and Training Sessions”
  • Book Excerpt: Bernard, J. M. (1997). The discrimination model. In C. E. Watkins, Jr. (Ed.), Handbook of psychotherapy supervision (pp. 310–327). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley & Sons. Used by permission of John Wiley and Sons Inc. via the Copyright Clearance Center.
  • Article: Roach, L. F., & Young, M. E. (2007). Do counselor education programs promote wellness in their students? Counselor Education & Supervision, 47(1), 29–45.
  • Article: Sommer, C., & Cox, J. (2005). Elements of supervision in sexual violence counselors’ narratives: A qualitative analysis. Counselor Education & Supervision45(2), 119–134.
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